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While the Incompatible fits in the tomb …

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Today: 110

While the Incompatible fits in the tomb …

The word of the saints of our father Epiphanius, bishop of Cyprus, about the burial of the Divine Body of our Lord Jesus Christ

N. Koshelev. "Burial of Christ"

What is it? Why is there such a deep silence on earth, and such silence? From that deep silence that the King rests.

The earth died down from fear, because the Lord fell asleep in the flesh, and raised the dead from ages. The Lord died to the flesh, and hell trembled; The Lord fell asleep for a short time, and aroused those who had slept in hell from ages.

Where, now, oh wicked, are those noisy and frantic voices against Christ that were heard before this? Where did the people, conspiracies, spirals and ghosts go? Where are kings, priests, and judges worthy of judgment? Where are the lights, swords and screams messy? Where did the rampaging people and the dishonest guard hide? Truly, people learn in vain and vain! They stumbled on the cornerstone of Christ, but they also lamented; hit a hard stone, and themselves crashed; their waves turned into foam; tied the great Sampson, but He, breaking the eternal bonds, destroyed the alien and lawless; God, the sun, Christ went underground, and left the Jews in eternal darkness.

Now salvation has risen upon those who live on the earth, and who have been in the underworld for ages; now salvation has risen to the world visible and invisible; this is the pure coming of Christ, pure construction, pure humanity, pure descent, and at the same time condescension, pure visiting of people: God comes from heaven to earth, and from earth to hell; the gates of hell are opened: departed from the age, rejoice, and those who are seated in the darkness and the passage of death, receive the great light! Lord among the slaves, God among the dead, life among mortals; innocent with the guilty, non-evening light – with those who sit in darkness and the shadow of death! Among the prisoners is the liberator; who is above heaven – among the inhabitants of the underworld. Christ on earth – and we have believed; Christ is among the dead – and we shall go down with him to the underworld and look at the secrets that are going on there; Let us understand the hidden miracles under the earth, performed by the hidden (Christ).

We learn how the gospel appeared to those in hell. What? Does God, having descended into hell, save everyone indiscriminately? No, He saves believers there too.

Yesterday He revealed the affairs of construction, and now – the affairs of dominion; Yesterday deeds of weakness, and now omnipotence; yesterday the deeds of mankind, and now the deeds of the Divine; Yesterday He was strangled by the Lanites, and now the radiance of the Deity shakes the hellish home; Yesterday he was connected, and now Himself binds the tyrant with insoluble bonds; yesterday he was condemned, and now he grants freedom to the condemned; yesterday the servants of Pilate mocked him, and now, having seen him, the gatekeepers of hell trembled with fear.

But listen to the essential cause of Christ's suffering; and after hearing, sing, glorify and preach the great miracles of the Lord; how the law gives way to grace, how the images pass and the shadows disappear, how the sun fills the universe, how the Old Testament is old, and the New affirms itself, as an ancient past, and the new blossomed!

At the time of Christ's suffering in Zion there were two nations – Jews and Gentiles; two kings – Pilate and Herod; two bishops – Anna and Caiaphas; two Passover were celebrated – the Old Testament, which was supposed to end, and the New Testament, which began from now on; that evening two sacrifices were made, because the salvation of the living and the dead was accomplished; The Jews, tying up the lamb for the sacrifice, turned their eyes to the shade, the Gentiles resorted to the sun of truth – to God; the former, having tied Christ, sent Him one to another, and the latter readily accepted Him; some of the sacrifice consisted of sacrificial cattle (κτηνοθυτόν), others – of God-dense (Θεοσωμον); The Jews remembered their exodus from Egypt; and the Gentiles proclaimed liberation from error. And where is it all? In Zion, the city of the Great King, in which he made salvation in the middle of the earth, in the middle of two animals (Habakk 3: 2), the known Jesus God-man, the source of life in the middle of the two sources of life of the Father and the Spirit – belly from the stomach; born in a manger in the midst of angels and men; lying the cornerstone in the midst of two peoples; preached together in the midst of the law and the prophets, appearing on a mountain in the midst of Moses and Elijah; crucified in the midst of two robbers, but confessed by God from a prudent robber: as an eternal Judge, He will sit down in the midst of present and future life; in the midst of the living and the dead now made a double life and salvation.

I speak a double life, that is, birth and rebirth. Listen to the work of Christ’s twofold birth and applaud miracles. An angel preached to Mary a swearing birth from Her Christ. The angel announced to Mary Magdalene of His terrible rebirth from the sepulcher; at night Christ is born in Bethlehem, at night in Zion and is reborn; at birth, He accepts the veil of swaddling clothes, – and here is entwined with a shroud; at birth they brought him a gift of myrrh, but by the time of peace and aloe he was parting for burial; there Joseph is Mary’s husbandless husband; and here Joseph of Arimathea – the trustee of our life (Christ); the place of birth was the Bethlehem manger, and in the sepulcher He sat down, as in a manger; the shepherds first announced the birth of Christ, and the shepherds, the disciples of Christ, also announced the first from the dead; there the angel exclaimed to Mary: rejoice, – and here, the great advice of the angel – Christ, exclaimed to the women: rejoice; forty days after the first birth, Christ entered Jerusalem on earth, into the temple, and as the first-born, brought God two doves; after forty days and after resurrection from the dead he ascended into Jerusalem high, the true holiest of holies, and as the imperishable firstborn of the dead brought to God and the Father our soul and flesh, as two immaculate doves; and here the Ancient of Days God and Father accepted Him indescribably into His bowels, like the old Simeon, who received Him in his earthly temple to his embrace.

If you consider it a fable and listen with disbelief; they will condemn you the seals of the tomb of the Lord, remaining intact upon the rebirth of Christ: for, as having been born of a Virgin, He did not damage the signs of the virginity of His Mother, he was resurrected without damaging the seals of the tomb.

But let us listen to the holy legends, like Christ, Our Life, when and by whom is it laid in the tomb?

Fra Beato Angelico. Descent from the cross. 15 century

Later I was, says the Scriptures, when a man came rich from Arimathea, named Joseph. This attack on Pilate, ask the body of Jesus (Matthew 27: 57-58): – the mortal has approached the mortal, asking for permission to take the mortal God; finger to finger, asking permission to take the artist of all kinds; hay to hay to receive heavenly fire; a small drop from a small drop takes the sea.

Who saw or who heard something like that? Man gives to man the Creator of men; the wicked is promised to give the righteous and the legislator; Unrighteous Judge Judge judges, as a convicted person, are sent to burial. Later, a former man came rich in the name of Joseph. Truly rich, because he received the entire complex Hypostasis of the Lord; truly rich, because he received from Pilate the pure nature of Christ; rich because he was honored to receive priceless margarit; truly rich, because he carried a treasury full of the Divine. How not to recognize him rich when he acquired life and salvation of the world? How not rich is Joseph, having received the gift of nourishing all and sovereign over everything? I’ll be there later, because the sun of truth has already gone to hell; therefore, a man came rich from Arimathea, by the name of Joseph, but fear was hidden for the sake of Judea. Nicodemus also came, who came to Jesus as a bearer.

The mystery of the mysteries of the innermost! Two hidden disciples come to hide Jesus in the grave, by their uttering, teaching the mystery of God hidden in the flesh, hidden in hell! One of them surpasses the other in zeal for Christ: Nicodemus earned the praise of generosity on myrrh and scarlet, and Joseph with courage and boldness before Pilate: because he rejected fear, dared to go to Pilate, and ask for the body of Jesus.

See how prudent Joseph is before Pilate to achieve his desired goal; with what modesty he speaks to Pilate, so that, upsetting him, he would not lose what he wanted. So, he does not say to him: give me the body of Jesus, who before that darkened the sun, broke the stones, shook the earth, opened the tombs and tore the church veil; but what? Offers him the most unimportant request. Judge! I came, he said, to offer you a small request: let me bury the dead body of that Jesus of Nazareth whom you condemned; Jesus the poor, homeless, hanged, naked, despised, Jesus the son of tecton; The bound Jesus who dwelt in the open; the wanderer of the unknown, not neglected by all. Give me this wanderer: for what good is it in his body? Give me This wanderer, because He came from a distant land in order to save the wanderers; He descended into the dark region in order to exalt the wanderer; give me this wanderer, because he and he alone are the true wanderer; give me This wanderer of the homeland, Whom we wanderers do not know; give me this wanderer, whose father is unknown to us strangers; give me this wanderer, whose place, birth and way of being are unknown to us wanderers; give me this wanderer, who led a wanderer life among wanderers; give me this wanderer of the Nazarene, who did not have where the head of worship; give me this wanderer, who, like a wanderer in a strange land, did not have his own dwelling, even was born in a manger; give me This wanderer, Which of the day nurseries was to flee from Herod; give me this wanderer, who even in swaddled clothes was implanted in Egypt, did not have hail, weigh, houses, dwellings and kinship, and lived in a foreign country; give me, hegemon, This naked one hanging on a tree: I will cover Him, I will cover the One who covered the nakedness of my nature; give me this dead man who is God together: I will cover him because he has covered my iniquities; give me, hegemon, This dead man who buried my sin in the Jordan. I intercede for a dead man, who endured resentment from everyone, whom a friend sold, a student betrayed, the brothers persecuted, and the slave strangled; I intercede for the dead, Whose condemned are those whom He freed from slavery; I ask, hegemon, for a dead man who has no father on earth, no friend, student, relative, no burial; He is the only begotten of the one Father, God in the world, and there is no other than Him.

When Joseph thus said to Pilate, this one ordered him to be given the all-blessed body of Jesus. Joseph, having come to Calvary, removed from the tree of God in the flesh, and laid it on the ground; and in this way lay the prostrate One who attracted everyone to grief; life and breathing for a short time becomes lifeless; The creator of the many-honored is made blind; the resurrection of all was cast to the earth; God who lifts the dead is put to death by the flesh and silences the thunder of the word of God.

He will land himself with his hands containing the sky. Say, say Joseph! how do you do this terrible burial of the body of Jesus? Aren't you terrified of carrying the One who is trembling in the arms of the Cherubim? With what fear do you divine His divine flesh? Do you not tremble when you look at the exposed nature of the flesh – the preaching God? Tell me, Joseph, how do you lay on the east of the deceased, who Himself is the east of the east? How do you close with your fingers the eyes of Jesus, who with your pure fingers opened the eyes of the blind? How will you close the mouth of the One who untied the tongue to the dumb? How do you fold the hands of the One who healed the withered hand; how do you swaddle the feet of Him who healed the lame; as you lay on the bed of the One who said to the weak: take your bed and walk; how do you shed the world on the heavenly world, which has exhausted itself and sanctified the world? How do you open the still sharpening rib of Jesus who healed the bleeding? How to wash the body of God, who washed and cleansed everyone? How do you light the lamps for the true light that enlightens every person? What kind of funeral songs will you sing to One who is relentlessly praised by the hosts of heaven? How will you mourn the One who mourned the dead Lazarus, and four days later raised him up? How will you mourn the One who granted everyone joy and destroyed the sadness of Evin?

I am pleasing, Joseph, your hands, touching the arms and legs of Jesus that still exuded blood; I clean your hands, which touch the wound, sharpening blood; I will cleanse your lips, touching the mouth of Jesus, and drawing from there the Holy Spirit; I am pleasing to your eyes, looking at the eyes of Jesus and drawing true light from there; I am pleasing your face, approaching the face of God; I am pleasing to your ramen who wore the one who bears all; I am pleasing your head, on which Christ bowed – the head of all; I am pleasing your hand, by which you carried all kinds of wearers; I am grateful to Joseph and Nicodemus, for before the Cherubim they had God on them, before the six-winged they served God, covering the Lord not with wings, but with a syndon; Joseph and Nicodemus carried on His shoulders the One whom the Cherubim tremble, and all the ranks of the incorporeal are horrified. Priide Joseph and Nicodemus: therefore, the whole divine cathedral of Angels also flock here; the cherubim precede, the seraphim flock, wear the thrones, cover the six-winged, the many-tremble flutter, seeing Jesus with dying eyesight; The forces conceal, glorify the Principles, the Chins are terrified; all the armies of supreme forces are amazed, and in surprise they ask each other: what does this extraordinary and incomprehensible spectacle mean? On earth, mortals freely look at that God, on whom we, the incorporeal, do not dare to look; Joseph and Nicodemus freely bury the One to whom the Cherubim will await with reverence. How did the being in the bowels of the Father come out? How did all sorts of executors come to earth? How was the secret from all revealed? The perfect God, dying with the Father, down with Matter, is the perfect mortal. Never appearing to us, how is it to humans, and how is a philanthropic God? How did the invisible become visible? How did the immaterial become embodied? How did impassive hurt? How did the Judge stand trial? How did life taste death? How does an incompatible fit in a coffin? How does Syu dwell in the tomb in the bowels of the Fathers? How does the One who opened the gates of paradise enter the gates of the cave? The gates of virginity not destroyed destroys the gates of hell? How did the disciples appear to the prisoners? How did people open the doors of the Kingdom of Heaven, keeping the gates of the tomb and seal intact? How is she accused of the dead, Even of the dead freedom? How is non-evening light in the dark and the canopy of mortal? With what intention descends to hell?

Elena Cherkasova. Descent into Hell

Maybe He is going to restore the condemned Adam? Exactly, He is going to look for the primordial, like a dead sheep; Is it true that God and the Son of Eve are going to free the captive Adam and Eve captured with him from suffering? But let us descend with Him and rejoice, speed up, sing, hasten to see how God is reconciled with people: how the all-good Lord delivered the condemned. For man-loving in nature, comes with strength and authority to bring the captives away from the ages, and those whom the bitter and insatiable death devoured and excommunicated from God, to be ranked among celestials. There the first created and first of all condemned Adam; there is the first dead and first righteous shepherd Abel, the image of the unrighteous slaughter of the shepherd Christ; there Noah, the image of Christ, the builder of the civot of the great Church of God, who saved the atrocious pagans from the flood of wickedness through the dove – the Holy Spirit, and let out a black lie; there Abraham, the progenitor of Christ, who made without sacrifice a sacrifice pleasing to God; there Isaac, whom, in the image of Christ, Abraham tied for the sacrifice; there is Jacob, who in hell also mournes as he mourned on the earth about Joseph; there the prisoner Joseph, who in the image of Christ, was a prisoner in Egypt, – and in the end he became master; there Moses – in the same gloom as he was when he was put in the dark ark; there in the pit of hell Daniel, once cast into the moat of the lion; there is Jeremiah, who was once in a mud ditch; there Jonah, who was in the belly of the whale, in the image of the eternal and eternal Christ; there is the Father God David, from whom Christ was born in the flesh.

Fra Angelico. Christ in purgatory. 15 century

But what can I say about David, Jonah, and Solomon? In the dark womb of hell was the great John, the greatest of all the prophets, who foretold Christ to all who were in hell; than he was made doubly the forerunner – a preacher for the living and the dead; he was sent from the prison of Herod to the world prison of hell, where the deceased righteous and unrighteous have been from the ages. But the prophets and all the righteous constantly prayed from there for the Lord to deliver them from sorrows and eternally dark night; for another of them said: From the womb of hell hear my voice! another: from the depths of your cries, Lord, Lord, hear my voice; one said: reveal Thy face and we shall be saved, and the other: sit on Heruvimeh; another said: raise up your strength and come, in a hedgehog to save us, and the other: soon let your bounties precede us, Lord; one: deliver my soul from the hell of hell; and the other: Lord, lead my soul out of hell; one said: do not leave my soul in hell; and the other: let my belly rise from corruption to you, Lord, my God.

Having heard them, the all-merciful Lord Christ did not consider it fair to make the partakers of His love of humanity only those who lived during His time on earth and will live after it; but also those who before His coming were kept in hell, and sat in the darkness and the canopy of death; посему людей, находящихся во плоти, он посетил с одушевленною плотию, а душам, разлучившимся с телами, явился с божественною и пречистою душею, которая, разлучившись с телом, не разлучилась с Божеством. Итак, поспешим сойти умом во ад, дабы видеть, как там Он обезсилил Своею силою сильного тирана, и как одним сиянием без оружия обезоружил безсмертные силы; сокрушив врата, отверз двери древом крестным, как попрал змия и повесил главу его, разрушил средостение, поставил непобедимые трофеи, умертвил смерть, истлил тление и возставил человека в первобытное достоинство.

Вчера Он, отвергая пособие Ангелов, говорил Петру: могу представить вящше нежели дванадесять легион Ангелов; а ныне с Божественною властию, как Победитель и Владыка, сходит даже до ада и смерти, в сопровождении безплотных воинств и чинов невидимых, не дванадесяти легионов, но тьмы тем и тысячи тысяч Ангелов, Властей, Престолов, шестокрылатых и многоочитых, дабы уничтожить чрез смерть тирана. Эти чины сопутствовали Ему, не как содейственники, но сопровождали Его с благоговением, как Господа и царя, потому что всесильный Христос не нуждается в содействии; их долг и вместе пламенное желание предстоять своему Господу и Богу; посему по одному мановению стремятся друг пред другом исполнять повеления, и всегда готовы на брань со врагами и беззаконниками; посему и тогда сходили с Господом Богом своим во ад и преисподние жилища к заключенным от века, дабы в силе извести узников.

Христос Царь Славы, 14 век, неизвестный автор

Тогда, лишь только светоносное пришествие Господа с Божественным сонмом осияло крепко огражденное, безвестное и мрачное узилище и темницы адские, всех предварил Архистратиг Гавриил, и произнес к противным силам следующее повеление: возмите врата князи ваша, а после него возгласил Михаил: возмитеся врата вечныя; потом и силы сказали: отстранитесь, беззаконные привратники; а наконец и власти со властию: разрешитесь неразрешимые узы; не думайте, чтобы пришедший Господь не мог взойти чрез затворенные двери; Он повелевает вам, как беглым рабам, взять врата вечныя, то есть сломить их: возмите врата князи ваша, потому что предстоит Христос, небесная дверь; уравняйте путь пришедшему на запад адский, Господь имя Ему; исход Его чрез врата смертные; вы сделали входы, а Он пришел сотворить исход; поэтому не медлите, возмите врата и спешите; возмите не медля; а если вы не решитесь на это, то мы прикажем самим вратам взяться без рук — возмитеся врата вечная.

Вслед за сими словами небесных сил врата взялись, узы разрешились, заклепы распались, основания узилища поколебались; противные силы обратились в бегство. Бросив бразды свои, они воскликнули: кто есть сей Царь славы? Кто это совершающий в аде такие чудеса? Кто Этот, выводящий отсюда усопших здесь от века? Кто Этот, разрушающий нашу силу, и изводящий из адской темницы от века связанных?

Между тем Господь приблизился к самой преисподней адской, где особенно стрегом был в узах первосоздапный Адам, коего Господь, взяв за руку, возставил, сказав: востани спяй и воскресни от мертвых, и освятит тя Христос. Я Бог твой, и со властию повелеваю узникам выйти, сущим во тьме просветиться, умершим воскреснуть; посему и тебе приказываю: востани спяй, потому что Я не для того тебя создал чтобы ты содержался во аде; воскресни из мертвых; Я жизнь мертвых; воскресни, подобие Мое, сотворенное по образу Моему; встань, выйдем отсюда; ты во Мне, и Я в тебе составляем нераздельное лице; для тебя Я, Бог твой, соделался сыном твоим; для тебя Я, Господь твой, принял зрак раба; для тебя Я, превысший небес, сошел на землю и в преисподнюю; для тебя человека Я, в мертвых свободь, соделался человеком; для тебя, изгнанного из сада, Я предан Иудеями в саду и распят на дереве.

Посмотри на заплеванное лице Мое: заплевание Я принял за тебя, чтобы возстановить тебя в первобытное достоинство; посмотри на претерпевшие заушение Мои ланиты: Я для того принял заушения, чтобы испорченный твой лик возстановить в Мой образ; посмотри на изъязвленный хребет Мой: Я для того принял бичевание, чтобы уничтожить лежащее на хребте твоем бремя грехов твоих; посмотри на прободенные гвоздием руки Мои: Я для тебя распростер их на кресте; посмотри на пронзенные ноги Мои; они пригвождены были ко кресту из-за твоих ног, которые утекли к древу преступления; Я страдал для того, чтобы тебя возстановить и отверзнуть рай; для тебя Я вкусил желчь, дабы уврачевать то горькое удовольствие, которое ты получил от сладкой для тебя снеди; вкусил óцта, дабы уничтожить силу горькой чаши, из коей проистекла смерть твоя; принял гýбу, дабы изгладить рукописание грехов твоих; принял трость, дабы подписать свободу роду человеческому; Мое ребро уврачевало рану твоего ребра, мой сон возбудил тебя из адского усыпления; копье, которым Я прободен, остановило обращенное на тебя оружие.

Итак, возстани, выйдем отсюда; враг вывел тебя из рая, а Я тебя возстановлю не в рай, а на небесный престол; Я запретил тебе прикасаться к образному древу жизни, но вот Я Сам — жизнь соединился с тобою; прежде Я повелел Херувиму хранить вход в рай, а теперь повелеваю Херувимам служить тебе; ты скрывался от Бога по наготе; но вот ты сокрыл Меня, истинного Бога, в себе; ты облекся в ризы кожаные, в доказательство посрамления своего; но Я, Бог, облекся в кровавую ризу плоти твоей: итак возстаньте, выйдем отсюда, — из смерти в жизнь, из тления в нетление, из тьмы в вечный свет; возстаньте, выйдем отсюда, — из скорби в радость, из рабства в свободу, из плена в райское наслаждение, от земли на небо: Я для того и умер и воскрес, да и живыми и мертвыми обладаю; возстаньте, выйдем отсюда; ибо Отец мой небесный ожидает овцу погибшую; девяносто девять овец, то есть Ангелов ожидают сораба своего Адама, когда он воскреснет, когда возстанет и взойдет к Богу.

Херувимский престол уготован; имеющие вознести вас на небо быстры в исполнении повелений; небесные селения уготованы; сокровищницы благ открыты; царство небесное прежде веков уготовано; человека ожидают такие блага, каких око не виде, ухо не слыша, и кои на сердце человеку не взыдоша. По произнесении сего Господом воскресает с Ним и в Нем соединенный Адам, воскресает и Ева, и многие другие телеса, верою от века усопшие, воскресли, проповедуя тридневное воскресение Господне, которое и мы верующие встретим, светло узрим и обнимем, радуясь с Ангелами, торжествуя с безплотными, и прославляя Христа, воскресившего нас из тления и оживотворившего. Ему слава и держава со безначальным Его Отцем, и со Всесвятым и благим и животворящим Духом, ныне и присно и во веки веков. Аминь.

Текст приводится по изданию: Слово иже во святых отца нашего Епифания, епископа Кипрского, о погребении Божественного Тела Господа нашего Иисуса Христа // Святоотеческие поучения на дни Страстной Седмицы. Сергиев Посад: Свято-Троицкая Сергиева Лавра, 2001. Репринт: Сборник церковно-учительных чтений на дни Страстной Седмицы. М.: Синодальная типография, 1900.

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