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Judaism and Christianity

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Judaism and Christianity

The attitude of Christianity to Judaism cannot be compared with its relationship with any other religion. In essence, Christianity and Judaism are two branches of the same religion – the biblical religion, as indicated at least by the fact that Christians and Jews have the same Scripture. And, of course, more: Israel, God's chosen people is an ineradicable element of Christian theology. Jesus was a pious Jew. Obviously, there is nothing more contra-indicated to Christianity than anti-Semitism: "Semitism" is inscribed in Christianity, so to speak, "forever"; But why then is anti-Semitism such a chronic illness of Christians? Christianity is not the abolition, but the completion of Judaism, such Judaism, where they no longer wait for the Messiah, but believe that He has come. And here, of course, the most important question arises: why did God's chosen people for the most part not accept the Messiah? What does Paul say then, that "all Israel shall be saved"? What happens to the Covenant of God and Israel after the Resurrection of Jesus? The second Temple has been destroyed, sacrifices have not been made for two thousand years – has Judaism “lost”? At the same time, the Torah is common among all the nations of the world – is Judaism "winning"? Is it not fundamentally important for Christian and Jewish theology?

Jews at the Wailing Wall

One way or another, for many centuries now Israel has been in the scattering among the Christian nations. The two thousand year history of the Jewish diaspora ended the Shoah … After that, Christians (Europeans in general) no longer have the right to remain anti-Semites. The ban on anti-Semitism, however, was often understood as a ban on criticizing Jews altogether. One of the effects of the Shoah is the creation of the state of Israel: it cannot be criticized. The situation is paradoxical: when the Jews existed as a diaspora, it was really immoral to criticize them: but it was then that the history of Judeo-Christian relations for the most part can be reduced to anti-Semitism. Anti-Semitism became absolutely taboo just after the creation of the state of Israel: that is, precisely when Israel is not only possible, but also morally critical (like any other state). In other words, discrimination against Jews remained, but it became positive (in particular, it can be seen in expressions like “Hitler wanted to destroy all Jews” – yes of course, but also the Gypsies: why didn’t the Gypsy genocide shake the world at all as much as the Jewish genocide?)

All this was well written by Badiou in the Orientation of the word “Jew”: “Jew” once meant: “emancipation”, “struggle against oppression”, “equality of rights” – in short, was a word from the left spectrum; now "Jew" rather rhymes with "war", "segregation", "state" – in short, with a word from the right spectrum. Theologically, we can grasp it this way: we need to supplement "theology after Auschwitz" with "theology after the creation of the State of Israel."

Anyway, today we offer a rather weighty selection of books, articles, lectures on Judeo-Christian relations.

Israel shoots Palestinians on the border (2018)

Books

Shutterbrood-blessing shrouded bladder shrouded horny borer ‚вThe Shoah is an event that forever changed Christian-Jewish relations, European anti-Semitism developed to absolute evil and collapsed (as one would like to believe: although it could be said that if the conditions of Weimar Germany are reproduced in a particular country, these conditions will reproduce the analogue of Nazism ). In the collection The Socio-Political Dimension of Christianity, you will find a section entitled “Christians and Jews after Auschwitz”, which contains several articles of contemporary thinkers. The most interesting thing here is a bunch of Shoah with the problem of creating the state of Israel, where for the first time in many centuries Jews became a political force, like any political force that oppresses its "enemies". “Theology after Auschwitz” should have in itself such an element as “Jewish theology of liberation”: Jews after their Holocaust and Palestinians after their: Shoah and Nakba (paradoxically, the harm caused by Europeans to Jews was reflected in the evil caused by Jews to Palestinians).

The Christian-Jewish Dialogue is the anthology of one hundred modern Jewish and Christian thinkers about anti-Semitism, the Holocaust, the religious mission, Israel, Jesus-Judea, Holy Scripture, salvation, women, joint testimony.

Martin-Gral's Christian-Jewish Dialogue: a unified theology of Jews and Christians, the State of Israel, the God of the Fathers and the Trinity, the synagogue and the church, and other topics.

The size of the pattern, the size of the frame, the size of the frame, and the size of the frame. Adornment perforated assortment “Judaism, Christianity, Islam. Mutual influence paradigms ”- a collection of works by Shlomo Pines – an outstanding researcher of the philosophy (philosophies?) Of religions of the biblical root. From the Old Testament to Nietzsche, through the Apostles Paul, Meliton of Sardis, Justin Martyr, Mutazilites, Maimonides, Al-Farabi, Thomas Aquinas, Spinoza, Kant – a series of Pines essays show the life of a culture (cultures?) Born from a single source – the Bible – from Lisbon to Islamabad, from Antiquity to modernity.

“Introduction to Judaism” is a textbook by Gleb Yastrebov: the origins of Judaism, the emergence of rabbinical Judaism, its heyday, modern Judaism, the Holocaust, the State of Israel, women, Judaism and Christianity.

Two books by the outstanding historian and biblical scholar Mikhail Posnov, which together can be considered the history of Israel: “The idea of ​​the covenant of God with the Israeli people in the Old Testament. The experience of theological and philosophical review of the history of the Israeli people ": from Adam to return from Captivity and" Judaism. To the characterization of the inner life of the Jewish people in the post-Enhanced time "from the Captivity to the destruction of the Second Temple. But not only the history of God's chosen people is important here, but also an attempt at Christian understanding of it.

Simha Polonsky is a Messianic Jew, that is, a Jew, believing that Jesus is the Messiah. “The main purpose of the book“ The Messiah in Jewish Holidays and Traditions ”is to give a clear picture of what Yeshua did for His chosen people, Israel, and how the ancient Jewish holidays reflect the image of the Messiah Who came to fulfill everything that was predicted about him in the Law (Torah ), The prophets and the scriptures. "

Two speeches by Patriarch of Moscow Alexy II:
– We must be united with the Jews
– Your prophets are our prophets

Lectures

The size of the pattern is ... in the shape of the aperture in the shape of the auger: the shape of the inquire“Judeo-Christian Dialogue: New Opportunities” – lecture of Andrey Dudarev.

One of the first schisms in the history of Christianity was not the schism of 325, when Arianism was condemned, but a much earlier schism of Judaism and Christianity, when the Sanhedrin in Yavne (circa 80 AD) excommunicated Christians from the synagogue. Since then began a long history of uneasy relations between Jews and Christians.

Over the years, representatives of both religions have developed certain ways of reflecting on each other. In the course of the lecture, we will look at these methods. Let's also talk about which of these methods can be considered more and which ones are less significant. Let us try to answer the question, how did it happen that the overwhelming majority of Jews did not accept Jesus as the Messiah of Israel?

It is wrong to assume that Judaism and Christianity are frozen, non-developing religious traditions. On the contrary, both religions have the ability to evolve within themselves. The 20th century opens up new possibilities in this sense. Naturally, these new opportunities also apply to the Judeo-Christian dialogue. We will try to reflect on why these opportunities open up and what opportunities these are.

Also read A. Dudarev's articles on religious Zionism in the book The Theology of Spiritual Movements.

“Apocalyptica in Judaism and Early Christianity” –BRINGING BRIEFLINKLINKLINKLINKLINKLAIN SNLa series of lectures on the apocalyptic ideas of the Jews and the first Christians:
– As the Jews waited for the end of the world
– Jewish apocalypses and their theology
– The most ancient apocalypses: the books of Enoch and the prophet Daniel.

“Jewish martyrs in biblical apocryphics” – a lecture by the priest Gregory Geronimus, a graduate student in the Department of Biblical Studies of the CACD. What is the meaning of martyrdom, first described in the books of the Maccabees and Christianity flourishing in the first centuries?

Shoulder stitched shrouded slash (shallow sturgeon down spine 1999 1999 € 2000 ass.)All beloved, popular, deep lectures on religion studies by Andrei Zubov:
– Two lectures "Judaism"
– The course "Islam and Judaism": modern Judaism, the problem of the chosen people in Judaism, the Messiah, etc.

“Judaism” – the course of Anna Shmaina-Velikanova and Natalia Kireyeva, read at the RSUH: Old Testament, “clean” and “unclean”, Pharisees, Essenes, Sadducees, Zealots, the birth of rabbinical Judaism, Jewish mysticism.

“Judaism” – ten lectures by V. L. Vikhnovich, read at the RCAA, and a monograph on the history of Judaism and Jewish civilization as a whole.

A course of lectures on Jewish culture E. M. Smorgunova. Holidays will be dismantled: Yom Kippur, Rosh Hashanah, Hanukkah; Jewish calendar: year, month, saturday; other topics, such as the origins of Judaism, Abraham, the concept of "water" and "road".

Russian philosophy

The shape, size, and shape of the spice («" The size of the spice "is the same as the size of the spindle, as well as the size of the bore. BRIEF)Two almost identical collections:

– Mystery of Israel. "The Jewish Question" in Russian religious thought of the late XIX – first half of the XX century.

– God, History and Jews (“The Jewish Question” in Russian religious thought)

Here is what you find in them:

Righteous John of Kronstadt – a famous comment on the Jewish pogrom in Chisinau: “What a thoughtlessness or misunderstanding of the greatest Christian holiday, what stupidity of the Russian people! What disbelief! What a delusion! Instead of the Christian holiday, they staged a disastrous holiday to Satan. ”

F. M. Dostoevsky. Diary of a writer. The greatest, perhaps, Christian writer … was an anti-Semite. Well, and it is also necessary to know.

Nikolay Leskov. "Jew in Russia" – the text of another greatType of act. In order to make it possible to use it and make it possible to make it possible to make it possible to make it possible to make it, please use it. You can use it in order to use it. You can use it in order to make it work. You can also use it in order to make it work. Package size XX XX.christian writer.

“From the spiritual books of the Jews, which Christianity honors, we know that according to the biblical idea, Egov himself was engaged in the fate of the Jews. The Jews grieved Him, betrayed Him, "were offered to alien gods – Astarte and Moloch", and Egov punished for this with domestic misfortunes, sometimes with captivity and scattering, but, however, He never took away from them the hopes of Forgiveness.

V.S. Soloviev. “The Jew and the Christian Question”, “New Testament Israel”, “The Protest Against the Anti-Semitic Movement in the Press”, “Letter from V.S. Solovyov to the Author (Instead of the Preface) <к книге Ф. Б. Геца «Слово подсудимому»>".

“It is possible to prove to the Jews that they are mistaken only in fact – by implementing in practice the Christian idea, consistently carrying it into real life. The fuller the Christian world would express the Christian idea of ​​spiritual and universal theocracy, the more powerful the influence of Christian principles would be on the privacy of Christians, on the social life of Christian nations, on political relations in Christian humanity, the more obvious the Jewish view of Christianity would be, the more likely and the conversion of the Jews would become closer. So the Jewish question is a Christian question. ”

Vasily Rozanov is the main yudofil and the main anti-Semite of Russian thought, rushing from extreme to extreme, the philosopher leaves us at a loss as to his attitude towards Jews. Having once supported the “blood libel”, another time he calls for returning to the Old Testament and learning from Jews to live … Maybe nonsense, maybe “dialectics”: “Judaism”, “Jewish secret writing”, “Do Jews have“ secrets ”? "," More about the Jewish mystery "," Olfactory and tactile attitude of the Jews to blood "," Something "about myself", "In the neighborhood of Sodom (the sources of Israel)", "Angel" Jehovah "(the sources of Israel)", " Europe and the Jews ”,“ Why is it really impossible for Jews to make pogroms? ”

D.S. Merezhkovsky. The Jewish question is like Russian.

"It is hard, painful, shameful …

But through pain and shame, we shout, we pledge, we swear, we assure people who do not know the multiplication table that two and two are four, that the Jews are the same people as we are not enemies of the fatherland, not traitors, but honest Russian citizens, those who love Russia are not less than ours; that anti-Semitism is a shameful stigma on the face of Russia.

But, in addition to crying, is it possible to express one calm thought? Judophobia is associated with legal fraud. Blind denial is the same blind assertion of a foreign nationality. When everything says an absolute “no” to it, then objecting, one must say everything absolute “yes”.

V.I. Ivanov. To the ideology of the Jewish question.

“We have so tangled, distorted and forgotten all the holy and right tradition, so we lost the habit of delving into the clear words that were rooted out of ancient truth, that the paradox may seem to be: the more alive and deeper the Christian consciousness in the Christian … the more alive and deeper feels he himself, as the son of the Church, – I will not say only a philosemite, – but truly seven in spirit. ”

N. A. Berdyaev. “The Fate of Jewry”, “The Jewish Question as a Christian Question”.

“The Jewish question is a question of the Christian vocation of the Russian people. There is some similarity between these peoples in the Messianic consciousness. And it is not by chance that marginal communism turned out to be primarily a Russian-Jewish idea, a Russian-Jewish anti-Christian faith. In the Russian spiritual element and in Russian Christianity there were strong elements of Judaic-chiliastic, national-messianic ”.

S. N. Bulgakov. "Zion", "The fate of Israel as the cross of the Mother of God", "Racism and Christianity", "Persecution of Israel".

“This people not only was, but remains elected, for“ the gifts and the election of God are irrevocable, ”according to the word an. Paul (Rom. XI, 29). This must be remembered and known by his present detractors, unless they themselves deny the faith in Christ and the veneration of the Most Pure His Mother.

Here we are approaching the last secret, about which an. Paul, to the conversion of Israel (26). What is this mystery? It is not open to us. However, there remain pious speculations, which have for themselves a certain persuasiveness and even obviousness. Such evidence is connected with our common hope of the intercession of the Mother of God. Can the work of “the salvation of all Israel” be accomplished, its spiritual resurrection, besides the one for which his election was made in order to serve the cause of the incarnation? “The Mother of God, who did not leave the world, does the prayer help and care leave the tree from which She herself grew on earth to ascend into the sky? Is there any effective help for her? It is enough to raise such a question to see that this is exactly the way it cannot be otherwise. If the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, all the Old Testament forefathers and prophets, Forerunners and apostles heed the prayer they uttered among their people, then at the head of this prayer throng God “waits in the prayers, the Mother of God,” and this intercession accompanies an unknown mystery “ salvation of all Israel in his conversion to Christ. ”

L.P. Karsavin. Russia and the Jews.

“Jewry is associated with Christianity only by Messiah, who came to the Jews and whom they reject. We recognize Jesus Christ, the Messiah and the God-man, who through humanity is intimately connected with the Jewish people and who first of all came to the children of the house of Israel and who made us the new Israel, the spiritual Israel. "

A. Z. Steinberg. Answer L.P. Karsavinu. “Russian Jewry is a kind of organic unity, although it belongs simultaneously to two different encompassing entities: to the nation-wide Israeli community and to Russia. Russian Jews have tasks in relation to world Jewry and there are tasks in relation to Russia. ”

V. V. Zenkovsky. On the themes of historiosophy.

“Recent years have been marked by a sharp and persistent statement of the problem of Jewry. This is a century-old problem, but our time has brought here a special passion, often reaching genuine mania. In addition to the cruel persecution of Jews in Germany, who in their inhumanity embarrassed quite a few even inveterate anti-Semites, a sermon of the absurd theory of racism, penetrating into a number of countries, like an infection, joined here. All this sharply highlights the Jewish question from a large complex of other difficult problems that have burdened our time. To a certain extent, the collapse or powerlessness of the traditional position of liberalism joins here, not in the sense that this position was wrong, but the position of liberalism in relation to the Jewish question revealed a clear inadequacy, inability to embrace the whole complexity of the topic of Jewry. A purely legal approach to this topic did not bring a real resolution of the issue – obviously the roots of anti-Semitism, the evil enmity towards Jewry cannot be paralyzed from the outside, through one legal culture. ”

G.P. Fedotov. New on the old theme (To the modern formulation of the Jewish question).

“There are two reasons why the fate of this nation is now more painful than the fate of others, affects the non-Jewish, and especially the Christian world. Первая — это всеобщее распространение еврейской диаспоры и ее далеко зашедшая ассимиляция. Каждый христианин в любой стране имеет среди евреев друзей и близких. Через их личное горе он легко может ощутить национальную катастрофу еврейства, если, конечно, сам не принадлежит к его сознательным врагам. Вторая причина порядка религиозного. Для христианина евреи не просто народ среди прочих, но народ, отмеченный божественным избранием, народ Христа, Его породивший и Его отвергший: народ, судьба которого имеет особое, всемирно-историческое значение».

М. О. Гершензон. Судьбы еврейского вопроса.

«Пepвый, caмый xapaктepный пpизнaк cиoнизмa — этo бeзвepиe, eгo нeoбyздaнный paциoнaлизм, мнящий ceбя пpизвaнным и cпocoбным yпpaвлять cтиxиeй. Haши пpeдки yмeли мyдpo cмиpятьcя пepeд зaпoвeдными тaйнaми; coвpeмeнный paзyм нe знaeт cвoиx гpaниц. Ho тaйны ecть; ecли нaшa мыcль paзгaдaлa ceкpeт ecтecтвeннoгo oтбopa, ecли oнa cyмeлa пoдчинить ceбe cилy элeктpoмaгнитныx вoлн, — это eщe нe знaчит, чтo eй вce пoдвлacтнo. Cиoнизм пocягaeт нa зaпpeтнoe yмy; в этoм cмыcлe oн — плoть oт плoти coвpeмeннoгo пoзитивизмa, o чeм, впpoчeм, и нeпocpeдcтвeннo cвидeтeльcтвyeт eгo нaциoнaлиcтичecки-yтилитapнoe oтнoщeниe к peлигии».

Владимир Марцинковский. Христос и евреи.

«Евреи боятся принятия христианства, как измены своему народу, как предательства и отступничества. Отсюда вражда к миссионерам и отпор по отношению ко всякой агитации во имя той или иной христианской церкви.

Но мы уже выяснили выше нашу основную мысль: именно для того, чтобы быть подлинными евреями, евреи должны уверовать во Христа, своего Мессию. И чтобы уверовать во Христа, современные евреи должны оживить в себе дух пророков. Евреи «сыны пророков и Завета». Так сказал о них апостол Петр (Д. Ап. 3:25.). Это их призвание. Память о нем не угасла в Израиле и доселе».

Прот. Александр Мень. Что такое иудеохристианство.

«Иудейская религия задумана — я употребляю этот термин специально — Богом как мировая религия. Это явствует из всей Библии. Эта религия не может оставаться в рамках Израиля. То, что было сложено в рамках нашего народа, должно быть и было вынесено для всего мира, Несмотря на взаимные конфликты, взаимные обвинения, взаимную борьбу, о которой я сейчас не буду говорить, мысль о родстве и близости двух вер сейчас все более и более становится очевидной».

Антисемитизм

Колено Даново. Ð­Ñ Ñ…Ð°Ñ‚Ð¾Ð»Ð¾Ð³Ð¸Ñ Ð¸ Ð°Ð½Ñ‚Ð¸Ñ ÐµÐ¼Ð¸Ñ‚Ð¸Ð·Ð¼ в Ñ Ð¾Ð²Ñ€ÐµÐ¼ÐµÐ½Ð½Ð¾Ð¹ Ð Ð¾Ñ Ñ Ð¸Ð¸«Колено Даново. Эсхатология и антисемитизм в современной России» — книга Виктора Шнирельмана, посвященная истокам современного российского антисемитизма: православие, советская эпоха, эсхатология, ожидания Антихриста, борьба с ИНН, почитание царской семьи, православные фундаменталисты и другие современные околорелигиозные феномены.

«Как делают антисемитом» Кураева — странная книга и вот почему: после Шоа любое высказывание о евреях, явным образом не окрашенное позитивно, стало считаться антисемитским. Собственно книга Кураева есть ряд таких высказываний.

Михал Чайковский. «Грех антисемитизма»:

«С облегчением можем сказать: корни антисемитизма находятся в дохристианском мире. Антисемитизм – явление языческое, причем в двойном значении этого слова. Во-первых, он полностью противоречит основам христианского вероучения, чужд и враждебен им. Во-вторых, генетически и исторически он также связан только с язычеством. Антисемитизм возник и развился в мире античного язычества».

«Стоящие на совершенно различных позициях, католический философ Жак Маритен и основатель психоанализа Зигмунд Фрейд одинаково определяют источник ненависти христиан к евреям. По их мнению, он коренится в неосознанной ненависти к Христу, в бунте против «христианского ярма». Для этих людей «иго Христа» отнюдь не благо и «бремя его» совсем не легко. Следовательно, христианский антисемитизм не что иное, как христофобия. Не могущий открыто выразить свою ненависть к христианству, христианский антисемит неосознанно для себя переносит ее на евреев, родных по крови Основателю христианства. Он обвиняет евреев в том, что они убили Христа. На самом же деле ему хотелось бы осудить их за то, что Он вышел из их среды, что именно они дали Его миру. И это роднит антисемитизм христиан с антисемитизмом нацистским».

Николай Бердяев. «Христианство и антисемитизм. Религиозная судьба еврейства»: «Соединение религии с кровью и национальностью, вера в избранность народа, охранение чистоты расы — все это древнееврейского происхождения, внесено евреями. Не знаю, замечают ли германские расисты, что они подражают евреям. В расизме как раз нет ничего «арийского», «арийцы» индусские и греческие были более склонны к индивидуализму. Но есть разница между еврейским и германским расизмом. Еврейский расизм был универсально-мессианским, он вынашивал универсальную религиозную истину. Германский же расизм есть агрессивный, мирозавоевательный партикуляризм. Расизм сейчас означает дехристианизацию и дегуманизацию, возврат к варварству и язычеству».

Священник Вячеслав Перевезенцев. «Грех антисемитизма»: «Антисемитизм, как впрочем, и любая другая расовая дискриминация, есть не только презрение к другому человеку как носителю образа Божия, но и (на сей раз это уже его исключительная черта) унижение Христа и Богородицы».

Андрей Десницкий. «Антисемитизм у подножия Креста»: «Службы последних дней Страстной седмицы — яркие, неповторимые, говорящие о самом главном, что только есть в христианстве. Пасха вся будет сплошным ликованием, а здесь такая гамма чувств, такая высота богословия…

И здесь же есть слова, о которые буквально спотыкается молитва. Мы слышим, что призывается не только Бог, но и… «лукавый, стропотнейший роде еврейский» (статия 2-я утрени Великой субботы). И даже вот такое звучит: «…о предательстве не довольни быша, Христе, роди еврейстии, но покиваху главами своими, хулу и ругание приносяще. Но даждь им, Господи, по делом их» (11-й антифон утрени Великой пятницы). Просьба о милости, покаяние — и «даждь по делом»?»

Священник Георгий Чистяков. «От маргинального юдофобства к партийному антисемитизму» — заметка о антисемтитизме в русских СМИ и политике в 90-ее гг. (как стихийный антисемитизм может превратиться в политическую респектабельную идеологию).

Искусство

Дочь Ð˜ÐµÑ„Ñ„Ð°Ñ «Дочь Иеффая» — рассказ Гертруды фон Ле Форт об отношениях Церкви и Синагоги. Средневековая Испания, инквизиция гонит евреев, в городе распространилась чума. Страдание и ненависть правит миром: и только дочь раввина понимает, что «и враги — тоже наши братья»… История о взаимоотношениях христиан и иудеев: «Синагога — тоже Мария, ибо она есть врата, через которые пришло в этот мир Спасение»; о Любви и сострадании.

«Гог и Магог» — уникальнаяГог и Магог книга. Единственный роман великого философа Бубера, отражающий интереснейшую реальную историю: спор цадиков (хасидских святых) о Наполеоне. Часть цадиков магическими средствами хотели сделать из Наполеона «Гога и Магога», тем самым приблизив Избавление. Другие же цадики верили, что Избавление может приблизить только внутренняя праведность. Так роман решает вопрос, как относиться верующим библейской традиции к истории и ее концу. Интересно, что Бубер в послесловии пишет, что одним из упреков к роману был такой: Бубер христианизировал хасидские предания.

«Суд над Богом» — телевизионный фильм Энди де Эммони (2008). Евреи в Освенциме решили провести суд над Богом, обвиняя Его в нарушении Завета. На судебном процессе будут рассматриваться главные события из истории отношений Израиля и Бога: на материале библейской истории и того, к чему она пришла в XX в., будут подняты вопросы теодицеи, страдания, справедливости и т. д.

«— Мы признали Бога виновным. Что теперь? — Теперь надо молиться».

«Ушпизин» — доброе светлое кино. «Ушпизин» — это гости, которые по иудейским поверьям должны прийти в дом на праздник Кущей. К супругам Мойше и Малке действительно приходят гости: сбежавшие заключенные, но делать нечего: именно таких гостей послал им Господь.

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