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John Chrysostom and Simeon the New Theologian about money and property; Metropolitan Anthony Surozhsky about time

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John Chrysostom and Simeon the New Theologian about money and property; Metropolitan Anthony Surozhsky about time

To get the best out of it MattressThe book "John Chrysostom about wealth and poverty, money and property" is a collection of extracts from the works of John Chrysostom on socio-economic topics. John Chrysostom is one of the most authoritative fathers of the Orthodox Church and, probably, the most authoritative on social and ethical issues. And Orthodox teaching has as its source not only Holy Scripture, but also Holy Tradition (that is, the creation of the Holy Fathers above all). What does Chrysostom teach (that is, the Church in his person)? People are equal, first of all, by their nature, all people have the same nature; secondly, people are equal in relation to the world: the sun, air, earth, water are common, given by God to all; thirdly, people are equal before God: He is the Father to everyone, Jesus crucified for all, and so on. If equality is so comprehensive, then where does inequality come from? – because of the "root of all evil – avarice". Chrysostom asserts – in modern terms – that property and money are social constructs, they have no basis either in nature or in theology; property and money are conventions generated by sin and causing an incalculable amount of evil. How to defeat the root of all evil? With the help of "great joy, virtue and grace" – the common property. Here and now it is necessary, says Chrysostom, to abandon property and money, to socialize everything in the brotherhood of love. This is not a utopia: this was the case with the first Christians, this is how the monks have it, nothing prevents us from introducing a community of assets right now, Chrysostom believes. It is remarkable that the social and economic doctrine of Chrysostom is not ascetic: he says many times that sin is not in the wealth itself, not in the property itself, material things, etc., but in their use (that is, in public relations), sin in avarice, that is, in separation, that is, in inequality, the sin is that some are rich at the expense of others; community of wealth will make all rich without sin. It is also remarkable that the love of money, being a sin, darkens not only conscience, but also reason: Chrysostom says many times that private property is inconvenient, unprofitable, harmful; common property is rational, convenient, useful; only the passion of avarice prevents people from seeing it. Since Christians have love for money, inequality, property, money, etc., they have not yet turned to Christ: Christians do not live like Christians; community of property among Christians will attract the whole universe to Christ, says Chrysostom. And these are not just words: Chrysostom suggests all this as a concrete, realizable program.

Ammunition of apertures of anomalies of ancillaryThe book "Simeon the New Theologian about money and property" is a collection of extracts from the works of Simeon the New Theologian on social and economic topics. We know Simeon the New Theologian first of all as an enthusiastic mystical poet, a teacher of spiritual life, but he was also a radical social thinker. Before the fall, the New Theologian teaches, a man lived in "full of happiness" and "everlasting joy," after the fall of man, a person finds himself in conditions of "poverty." Desiring to “escape” from “scarcity”, a person “was made a thief, either explicit or secret, some kind of robber, forcibly taking away someone else’s, some kind of limp, an unrighteous deceiver; hence envy, treachery, slander, enmity, disputes, courts, slander, lies, perjury, murder. ” The fall from the kingdom of "joy" in the kingdom of "poverty", because of what he plunged into the struggle for material goods, and this struggle gives rise to an incalculable amount of evil. Here, as you can see, there is no distinction between the “spiritual” and “material” sides of the process. So, for example, Simeon describes the genesis of slavery:

“The wise and all-merciful God, for being in this world, created a father and a son, but not a slave and a mercenary. Neither our first father was a slave, or a mercenary, nor the first son. For whom they would be slaves and mercenaries? Slavery and mercenary came afterwards: slavery came from the enmity of people among themselves, who began to fight against each other, and enslave each other; and mercenary from poverty and shortcomings, which began to overcome the weakest because of the greed and greed of the strongest. Thus, both the slave and the mercenary descended from the sin and evil that reigned among the people: for without violence and poverty, no one would be a slave, nor a mercenary. Who will want to be them when slaves and mercenaries do not do what they want and what they like, but what their masters want? The cause of this is the devil, the wicked wise force that has fallen away from God. ”

Such is the genesis of the political system:

“Then, in paradise, there was no need for law, neither written nor spiritual. But after a man tasted of that forbidden tree and died a bitter death, that is, fell away from God and was subjected to defilement, then he would not fall away from any good at all (since evil spread greatly in the human race and tyrannized it violently , because of the disastrous relaxation to which he was subjected as a result of defilement), a law was given to him to show what is good and what is bad. For man became blind, went out of his mind and became foolish. ”

God made everything common, private property, class society, the state – from sin, therefore, the New Theologian concludes, property and money must be common, and the owner is none other than a murderer; the rich are the killers of the poor:

“The money and possessions in the world are common to all, like the light and this air that we breathe, like the pastures of unwise animals on the fields, on the mountains and throughout the land. In the same way, everything is common to all and is intended only for the use of its fruits, but does not belong to domination. However, the passion for acquisitions, which penetrated into life, as a kind of usurper, divided in various ways between its slaves and servants what was given by the Lord to everyone for common use. She surrounded everything with fences and secured them with towers, bolts and gates, thereby depriving all other people of using the blessings of the Lord. At the same time, this shameless woman claims that she is the owner of all this, and argues that she did not commit injustice towards anyone. On the other hand, the servants and slaves of this tyrannical passion become not the owners of the things and money they inherited, but their bad slaves and guardians. And if they, having taken something or even all of this money, out of fear of threatened punishments or hoping to receive a hundredfold, or inclined to the misfortunes of people, are given to those who are in hardship and poverty, then can they be considered to be merciful or fed on Christ, or committed worthy of a reward? In no case, but as I say, they must repent until they die, that they held them for so long (these material goods) and deprived their brothers of using them.

The devil inspires us to make private property and transform into our savings that which was intended for general use, so that through this passion for acquiring to impose two crimes on us and make perpetrators eternal punishment and condemnation. One of these crimes is mercy, the other is hope for deferred money, not God. For one who has a deferred money cannot hope for God. This is clear from what Christ and our God said: “Where,” he says, “is your treasure, there will be your heart”. Therefore, the one who distributes all of the money collected to himself should not receive rewards for it, but rather remains guilty of the fact that until that time he had unfairly deprived others of them. Moreover, he is guilty of losing the lives of those who died from hunger and thirst during this time. For he was able to feed them, but did not feed them, but buried what belongs to the poor in the ground, leaving them to die of cold and hunger. In fact, he is the murderer of all those whom he could feed. ”

Christ frees people from all of this:

"People turn them away (i.e., weak, wise, poor), the earthly king does not tolerate their kind, the rulers turn away from them, the rich despise them and, when they meet them, pass by, as if they did not exist, and communicate with No one considers them desirable, but God, who is served by countless angels, all containing the word of His power, Whom magnificence is intolerable for everyone, did not refuse to become a father and friend and brother of these outcast, but wanted to incarnate in order to become similar to us in everything except sin and make us communion Kami His glory and kingdom. Great power is needed to free them (people) from the hands of the devil, after enslaving them and keeping them in their slavery. And there is no other such force, and there can be no other than the unity of Christ the Lord, who is the power of God and the Father. So, who He will free, he is truly free, because he can be pure, chaste, good, righteous, pious, humane, graceful, gracious, meek, compassionate, temperate – in a word to say, he is a man as he should be. Those that are not are the essence of either wordless animals or demons, although they are orthodox Christians in appearance. Such Christians are even more guilty and the worst punishment; and Christ, who came to deliver the devil from slavery to them, is worthless of them, not because He could not or did not want to deliver, but because they themselves do not want to be delivered and do not seek Him properly. This deliverance is one and the same true freedom, the receipt of which transcends all human power. Why is Christ, God, and eager to become a man, and for that one he died to free the people from slavery to the devil. "

Here we see the connection of the mystic-ascetic teachings of Simeon the New Theologian with the social: “the same ones that are not animals and demons” are those who did not receive grace, who did not receive the Spirit, who do not see the Uncreated Light, that is, Christians only by name and not by substance. But those who received grace do not need capital, property, or family:

“Do not say that it is impossible to receive the Divine Spirit, Do not say that God is invisible to people, Do not say that people do not see the Divine light Or that it is impossible in real times! This is never impossible, friends! But it is even possible. (Such) little by little forgets the world and even in the world – money, property, relatives. Light, of course, makes light: therefore they are made light by the children of God, as written (Psalm 81: 6), and by gods by grace — those who renounce the vanity and deceitful world, without hatred will hate parents and brothers, considering themselves to be wanderers and aliens in life; those who will deprive themselves of wealth and property, completely rejecting addiction to them. Together we (with this) will become Gods, co-abide with God, completely discerning iniquity in the body (ours), but having all likened our whole body to Christ, and each of us is a member (his), all Christ is. My finger is Christ and the fertile member. See Christ in the (female) lozhnyakh and think about what is in the lozhnya, and about the One who came out of the lozhe (which) my God passed, proceeding from there. You, oh my God, are nothing of everything (existing in nature), but all your works are made out of nothing, you alone are uncreative, one is without beginning, the Savior, the Trinity is Holy and honest, God of all kinds. And You showed us the light of Your immaculate glory, which even now continually give to me, the Savior. Let me always see through it, as if in a mirror, (and contemplate) You, the Word, and well (behold and) comprehend Your inexplicable beauty, which, being completely thoughtless, more than amazes my mind, causes my thought to burn and ignites in my heart is the fire of love for you; he, becoming the flame of divine desire, more clearly shows me your glory, my God. Worshiping her, I pray to You, Son of God, give me now and in the future (century) to constantly have her and through her forever to contemplate You – God. Do not give me, Vladyko, the vain glory of this world, neither the wealth of the perishing, nor the talents of gold, nor the high throne, nor the authorities over these perishables (things); connect me with the humble, the poor, and the meek (so that I too may become humble and meek). "

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The concept of fear is a psychological essay about original sin. Здесь Кьеркегор проводит важнейшее для дальнейшей философии различение страха-боязни от страха-ужаса: последний ставит субъекта перед Ничто, высвечивает природу субъекта именно как субъекта. Также здесь можно найти теологические размышления над влечением, эротизмом и пр.

«Болезнь к смерти» посвящена «смертельной болезни» — отчаянию; болезни, известной только христианам.

«Страх и трепет» — безусловный шедевр, где Кьеркегор размышляет над историей Авраама, отца веры. Авраам верил в том, что Господь не заберет у него Исаака, и, веря в это, был готов принести в жертву Исаака: вот парадокс веры. Кьеркегор видит в этом две существенных черты веры: во-первых, здесь вера предстает во всей своей специфике, в своем отличии от этического, в религиозном превосхождении этического; во-вторых, здесь видна суть веры — абсурд: абсурд, который действительно принять можно только верой.

«Повторение» — художественно-философская работа Кьеркегора. Как ни странно, Кьеркегор считал повторение — одной из главных философских проблем. Повторение в античной (языческой) философии осуществлялось в модусе прошлого (воспоминание), а в современной (христианской) — в модусе будущего (собственно повторение). Герой этого текста проделывает некий жизненный эксперимент относительно повторения, что наталкивает его на фигуру Иова — ведь как раз Иову Господь даровал повторение. Так герой герой начинает заниматься проблемой искушения.

«Философские крохи» — здесь Кьеркегор занимается проблемами Писания, обращения ко Христу, христианской истины. Ни спекулятивно-философскими, ни историко-критическими средствами абсолютно невозможно приблизиться ко Христу. Воплощение Бога, явление вечности во времени — абсолютный парадокс, принять который можно только прыжком веры.

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Очерки Ñ Ð¸Ð½ÐµÑ€Ð³Ð¸Ð¹Ð½Ð¾Ð¹ антропологии«Очерки синергийной антропологии» — первое систематическое изложение системы вероятно главного современного русского православного мыслителя Сергея Хоружего: неклассической модели человека, основанной на опыте восточнохристианских духовных практик. Помимо изложения идей синергийной антропологии, здесь есть также применение её идей к ряду актуальных проблем: виртуальности, эвтаназии, взаимосвязи обожения и технологий, современных практик себя, глобализации и т. д.

Следы на Ñ Ð½ÐµÐ³Ñƒ«Следы на снегу» Патриции Сент-Джон — замечательная христианская детская повесть о чувстве вины, раскаянии, прощении. Тринадцатилетний Люсьен страдает от чувства вины (его друг сорвался со скалы). Сначала он пытается скрыть свой проступок, затем — заслужить прощение.

Выложили два важных источника по истории Русской Церкви в XX веке:

— Архивы Кремля. Политбюро и Церковь (все без исключения документы 1922–1925 гг. четырех “тематических” дел фонда Политбюро АПРФ, посвященные рассмотрению в главном властном органе страны вопросов антирелигиозной работы; плану разгрома Русской Православной Церкви и созданию Политбюро и Лубянкой церкви обновленческой в ходе кампании по изъятию церковных ценностей; судебным процессам 1922 г. над духовенством и верующими; подготовке в 1922–1925 гг. судебного дела патриарха Тихона).

— Письма патриарха Алексия I в Совет по делам Русской Православной церкви при Совете народных комиссаров — Совете Министров СССР. 1945–1970.

Из лекций и бесед мы добавили:

— Пастор Алексей Клименко и игумен Петр (Мещеринов) читают «Предостережение от духовной беспечности» Герхарда Терстегена.

— Два семинара по наследию митрополита Антония Сурожского: «Почему я до сих пор христианин?» («Мы называем себя христианами. Да, когда-то мы приняли крещение (кого-то крестили в младенчестве, кто-то в сознательном возрасте сам пришел к такому решению), но ведь жизнь меняется, мы меняемся, мир ставит нас перед вызовами, возникают различные проблемы. Почему мы продолжаем оставаться христианами?»); «Кто Ты, Время?» («И время — одна из важнейших категорий истории и человеческой жизни. Это не просто бессмысленный путь, который мы проходим — во времени есть смысл, так как время и становление нераздельны, время и тварность взаимосвязаны, время должно быть спасено и искуплено»).

Добавили несколько фильмов для семейного просмотра:

— «Мысли о свободе» — история о 12-летнем мальчике, который вырастил гепарда, а потом вернул его «на родину».

— «Невероятное путешествие мистера Спивета»: друг десятилетнего талантливого Т. С. Спивета отправляет его работы в один институт. Институт присуждает Спивету награду и приглашает прочитать доклад. Мальчику, чтобы добраться до института, приходиться сбежать из дома и проделать путь через всю страну.

— «Мы с дедушкой» — кино о городском мальчике, отправляющимся на каникулы к дедушке.

— «Звёздочки на земле»: индийскому мальчику Ишану Авасти трудно дается учеба. Его отсылают в школу-интернат. Там он встречает учителя рисования, который в отличие от других взрослых находит к мальчику подход.

— «Мой домашний динозавр»: мальчик в Шотландии находит крупное яйцо, из которого вылупляется динозавр.

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