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Atheism is the product and ally of Christianity. Part 1Atheism and Christianity

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Atheism is the product and ally of Christianity. Part 1

Atheism and Christianity

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<p>After the week of the Last Judgment, it would not be bad for us to remember that it will be asked not for the Creed, but for very different things.</p>
<p>At Shrovetide worth remembering what profanation is.</p>
<p>And on the eve of Lent, that to which he leads is the Passion Week. </p>
<p>And all this against the background of a new stage of controversy about the light and the religious, which flared up around the ban on hijabs in Mordovia, against the background of the murders of cartoonists in Europe and the Coptic Christians in Libya.</p>
<p>All of these topics unexpectedly came together in today's topic of "atheism and Christianity." How it happened – read at the end of the letter, after a series of our selections on the topic:</p>
<p>  polemics of atheists and Christians, films and prose about atheists and Christians, texts about atheists and Christians in history, books of atheists about Christians and Christians about atheists.    </p>
<h2>Controversy atheists and christians</h2>
<p>“God: yes or no? Conversations of the believer with the unbeliever</p>
<p>Anthony Surozhsky</p>
<p>Conversations of the great preacher Anthony of Sourozh with an atheist. Here, Vladyka Anthony, as it were, reveals for the first time Orthodoxy to us, its ever new and amazing truths. For example:</p>
<p>Metropolitan Anthony: It seems to me that the center of the whole Gospel is not in ethical teaching.</p>
<p>Anatoly Maksimovich: It can not be!</p>
<p>Metropolitan Anthony: Ethical teaching is a derivative and almost secondary to me. It seems to me that for a Christian the absolute center of the Gospel is the historical person of Christ, who was both God and man, and if this is removed, then the teaching of Christ is one of the teachings that can be perceived to a greater or lesser extent. The disciples might have stayed together as an ethical group, but they would never have come out to preach on Christ. The Apostle Paul says that his whole sermon consists in the sermon on Christ crucified and risen, that if Christ did not rise, then His disciples are the most miserable of people, because they build their world view and life on fantasy, hallucination, lies (1 Cor., Ch. 15).</p>
<p>"Dialogue on faith and unbelief"</p>
<p>Umberto Eco. Cardinal Martini</p>
<p>The dialogue of the atheist, the great contemporary writer Umberto Eco, and the eminent Catholic theologian, Cardinal Martini.</p>
<p>Among other things, this dialogue is remarkable for what so often atheists and Christians lack in “holivars”: with intelligence, benevolence, willingness to hear each other.</p>
<p>“Why is it hard for us to believe in God?”</p>
<p>Alexander Men</p>
<p>This book contains the answers of Father Alexander to typical questions / perplexities / criticisms of unbelievers: the uselessness of worship and the Church, the “idea of ​​God”, the historicity of Jesus, evolution, science, miracles, and so on. etc.</p>
<p>"Controversy with atheism"</p>
<p>Sergey Khudiyev</p>
<p>“Christian Answer to Atheism” by Sergey Khudiyev, an outstanding modern apologist.</p>
<p>Here the defense of Christian truths is built from rational positions.</p>
<h2>Prose and film about atheists and Christians</h2>
<p>“At the cost of loss”, “Monsignor Quixote”</p>
<p>Graham green</p>
<p>After the release of the novel “The Price of Loss,” many decided that Green had lost faith. His main character is an atheist who has gone to the center of suffering, to the leper colony.</p>
<p>"Monsignor Quixote" – Green's late novel. It illustrates the idea of ​​the “community” of a believer and an atheist against this world. The mad priest Quixote and the prudent communist Panso.</p>
<p>"Saint Manuel the Good, the Martyr"</p>
<p>Miguel Unamuno</p>
<p>Unamuno was called "a believing atheist." The necessity of believing in God for life and the impossibility of believing in Him are the main “plot” of his philosophy and his artistic prose.</p>
<p>"St. Manuel" can be considered the vertex development of this plot.</p>
<p>"The ball and the cross"</p>
<p>Gilbert chesterton</p>
<p>Another example of the community of believers and atheists in the fight against evil. In this case – in the beautiful parable of Chesterton – already directly with Evil itself.</p>
<p>Sancent Limited</p>
<p>T.L. Jones film</p>
<p>Wonderful chamber film-dialogue intellectual atheist who tried to commit suicide, and a simple believer hard worker who saves him.</p>
<p>"Seventh Seal"</p>
<p>Film of Ingmar Bergman</p>
<p>One of the main themes of Bergman was the silence of Heaven before the despair of man.</p>
<p>The Seventh Seal, an unconditional masterpiece, is dedicated to this.</p>
<p>Death: Guaranteed wanted?</p>
<p>Knight: Call it what you like. Why is God so cruelly incomprehensible to our feelings? Why should he hide behind the haze of vague promises and invisible miracles?</p>
<p>Death is not responding.</p>
<p>Knight: How to believe believers, when you don't believe yourself? What will happen to us, those who want to believe, but cannot? And what will happen to those who do not want and do not know how to believe?</p>
<p>The knight falls silent and waits for an answer, but no one speaks, no one answers. Perfect silence.</p>
<h2>The Last Judgment: Atheists and Christians in History</h2>
<p>"Philosophical Letters"</p>
<p>Peter Chaadaev</p>
<p>“Until we learn to recognize the action of Christianity everywhere where human thought in any way comes into contact with it, even with the aim of opposing it, we don’t have a clear idea about it.” – this is the covenant of the father of Russian philosophy, Peter Chaadaev.</p>
<p>Chaadaev, the great Christian thinker, thought of the historicity of Christianity as a few. Christianity is not an idea, but a matter. The resurrection of Christ is not a symbol, but a historical fact. It's all about that.</p>
<p>"On the decline of the medieval worldview"</p>
<p>Vladimir Solovyov</p>
<p>Very small, but extremely important article.</p>
<p>While imaginary Christians renounced and denied the Spirit of Christ in their exclusive dogmatism, one-sided individualism, and false spiritualism, while they were losing and losing it in their lives and activities — where did the spirit itself disappear? I am not talking about His mystical presence in the mysteries of the church, nor about His individual action on selected souls. Are mankind as a whole and its history abandoned by the Spirit of Christ? Where, then, is the whole social, moral, and mental progress of the last centuries?</p>
<p>Most of the people who made and produced this progress do not recognize themselves as Christians. If Christians by name had betrayed the cause of Christ and almost killed him, if only it could have perished, then why would non-Christians whose name, renouncing Christ, cannot serve the cause of Christ? In the Gospel we read about two sons; One said: I will go — and not go; the other, say: I will not go — and will go. Which of the two, Christ asks, did the will of the Father? (Matt. 21, 28-31) It is impossible to deny the fact that the social progress of the last centuries was accomplished in the spirit of humanity and justice, that is, in the spirit of Christ. The destruction of torture and cruel executions, the cessation, at least in the West, of all persecutions of non-believers and heretics, the destruction of feudal and serf slavery – if all these Christian transformations were made by unbelievers, so much the worse for believers.</p>
<p>Those who are horrified by this thought that the Spirit of Christ acts through those who do not believe in it will be wrong even from their dogmatic point of view. When an unbelieving priest properly performs the mass, Christ is present at the sacrament for the sake of the people in need, despite the unbelief and unworthiness of the perpetrator. If the Spirit of Christ can act through an unbeliever priest in the church sacrament, why can he not act in history through an unbeliever, especially when believers cast him out? The spirit breathes where it wants.</p>
<p>Dmitry Merezhkovsky</p>
<p>The main idea of ​​Merezhkovsky was the utopia of the religious community. The main issue is the inaction of Christians and the action of atheists. We give a few random quotes:</p>
<p>“There is a bottomless contradiction between religious consciousness and action: religious consciousness is ineffective; religious action unconsciously. "</p>
<p>“Where are the actual religious affairs of our day? How not to prove, but to show that religion is the most necessary of all human affairs? If anything in religious experience is lost completely and seemingly irrevocable, then it is precisely the sensation of religious action. While talking about religion as an ideal, everyone agrees, or at least no one argues – it seems, however, because everyone does not care; but just trying to connect religion with reality, you find yourself either in the cold or in the scoundrels, because for the memory of modern humanity the only religious and social reality is the folly of the deceived, the deceitfulness of the deceivers. ”</p>
<p>“Today people say: Christ is risen. But what do they think and feel? Perhaps it was similar to what the disciples of the Lord felt when they were going to Emmaus, talking to an unrecognized companion about the crucified, buried, and not resurrected Lord: – And we hoped it was. Today, Christ is resurrected, and tomorrow the full will take away the bread of the hungry just as he took it yesterday. Today, Christ is resurrected, and tomorrow prostitutes will go out into the street just as they went out yesterday … ”</p>
<p>Merezhkovsky did not systematically develop these ideas. They are scattered according to his numerous articles. For starters, you can advise his collection "In the still waters."</p>
<h2>Atheists about Christians</h2>
<p>Slava Zizek</p>
<p>“The true Christian heritage is too precious to be left to the fundamentalist geeks to devour” – this is the main idea of ​​the two books of иižek that we have hosted.</p>
<p>Zizek is perhaps the most popular thinker now. He is an atheist, and just figuring out his relationship with Christianity, иižek comes to the conclusion that his Today (Marxism and psychoanalysis) are in conflict with late capitalism:</p>
<p>“One of the most regrettable features of the era of postmodernism and its so-called“ thought ”is to return to it the religious dimension in all its most diverse manifestations, from Christian and other fundamentalism through the many spiritualistic tendencies of the“ new age ”to emerging religious sensuality within the limits of deconstruction itself (so-called "post-secular" thought) ".</p>
<p>In such conditions, he is a materialist, a Marxist, a psychoanalyst, and he was able to see that these of his Today go back to Christianity, that Christianity remains the innermost essence of the West:</p>
<p>“I must say: yes, from Christianity to Marxism leads a straight line of inheritance; Yes, Christianity and Marxism should be on the same side of the barricades, fighting together with the non-spiritualism that rushes into battle. ”</p>
<p>"Apostle Paul"</p>
<p>Alain Badiou</p>
<p>Badiou is probably the biggest modern thinker. He identifies four "truth procedures": science, art, politics, love. They are experiencing in the late modernity its closure, speaking as a technique, culture, administration and sex. And here is the apostle Paul?</p>
<p>In his brilliant book about Paul, Badiou proposes to consider Christianity to be the primeval event of the Truth.</p>
<p>The event of the Resurrection of Christ threw Paul out of the network of social relations, made him free, opened up the universal dimension – “in Christ there is neither the Hellenes, nor the Jews …”. In this dimension, it became possible to create a community not subordinate to anything other than Event.</p>
<p>“There is nothing to be afraid of”</p>
<p>Julian barns</p>
<p>Zizek and Badiou, two left-wing atheist philosophers, refer to Christianity as the origin of their own truths. Barnes is a completely different case: an example of “normal”, “philistine” atheism.</p>
<p>The book "the atheist in the third generation," one of the best English writers Julian Barnes. As always, this author has a finely thought out composition, great style and a lot of irony. The more interesting is the essence of this book: a collection of common places, trivialities about death, which come to the mind of modern man – not at all to a “warlike atheist”, but to “just an atheist”, like “all of us” in the 21st century are atheists.</p>
<p>“I do not believe in God, but I miss Him. So I say, when they ask me this question ”- the beginning of the book. The fact that this is how a book actually begins is not about God and faith in Him, but about death – this is already a banality.</p>
<p>The book, we repeat, is remarkable in that it is written by an honest, certainly intelligent, educated atheist. We will read about how art replaced religion – but no, in fact it did not replace, as science explains everything, and of course there is no God, but it is not easier to die from it.</p>
<p>Drawing on the experience of his family and several European intellectuals (Stendal, Shostakovich, etc.), Barnes wants to understand how he himself treats death and God. He is afraid to die, does not believe in God, but He is not enough for Him. What the book began, so ended. Fatigue and sadness, “phantom pain” about God and the inevitability of death — this is how a wonderful and typical book could be characterized. Its typicalness is its main value, both for atheists and for believers (“still believers”):</p>
<p>"There is nothing to fear." "They say about death:" There is nothing to fear. " They say it quickly, carelessly. Now let's say it again, slowly, shifting the stress. "There is nothing to fear." Jules Renard: “The surest, most accurate, most meaningful word is“ nothing. ”</p>
<h2>Christians about atheists</h2>
<p>Life of Niphon of Cyprus</p>
<p>The Life of Nifont is a remarkable text in many ways. Here we are interested in the fact that his hero was an atheist.</p>
<p>The greatest of the many challenges of Niphon is doubt in the being of God. The devil says to him: “You are mistaken, Nifont, there is no God, for where is He? What do you say: is there Christ? No Christ: I alone own and reign over all who told you that there is a God or a Christ? ”</p>
<p>Repentance is the essence of liberation, the path from the world of power and violence to the world of freedom and meekness (as the first commandment says: “brought from the house of slavery”). Nifont realizes that he is free from the aggression of demons, having prayed to the Virgin Mary. Demons reproach their prince: “See how the name of Jesus is glorified by those whom we once held in our power, – where is our strength? They overcame her, and our kingdom was destroyed. "</p>
<p>In the course of Niphon's doubts about God and faith, Life gives such an episode: Nifont asks the angel: “Why don't you punish him (a sinner man, to keep which the angel is“ put in ”), so that he lags behind sin?”. “I do not have the opportunity,” answered the angel, “to approach him, since since he began to sin, he has been a slave of demons, and I have no power over him: for God created man with free will and showed him a narrow path and wide, so he went on what he wants. "</p>
<p>So, the angel can not punish, punishment does not lead to God, man is free. But with freedom — his own and God’s — he is saved: “There is no sin that exceeds the love of God for God.”</p>
<p>The gloomy face of Nifont the sinner is replaced by the "bright as the sun" face of Nifont the Saint. “He always had a cheerful and bright face, so some were perplexed and said:“ What does this mean, for so many years he went sullen, and now he is happy and cheerful? The saint had the courage against demons, mocking them, he said: “Where are those who claimed that there is no God?”</p>
<p>"After Christianity"</p>
<p>Gianni Vattimo</p>
<p>Vattimo is one of the leading postmodern theorists and modern Christian thinkers.</p>
<p>In this book, he thinks about the possibility of faith in the conditions of pluralism of the postmodern era. According to Vattimo, pluralism does not just not interfere with faith, but vice versa – it revives its opportunity (philosophical, personal freedom is always relevant).</p>
<p>Moreover, postmodern and secularization are identified by Vattimo as the fate of Christianity, as its historical fruits. The root features of modernity appear at Vattimo as the embodiment of Christianity (science and technology, the West, capitalism, etc.).</p>
<p>“Religion after atheism. New features of theology</p>
<p>Mikhail Epstein</p>
<p>One of the most interesting books on theology and the current situation in general in recent years. The unprecedented Soviet experience of mass atheism does not abolish religion, but brings it to a new level – the “poor religion”, the religion after atheism, freed from any traditions, historical, national or any other restrictions. The book will cover topics such as post-postism, religion within atheism (the religious dimensions of Soviet materialism and art), atheism inside theocracy (those who want worldly power, and thus do not believe in the power of the Lord over the world) God as life (as opposed to the Nietzschean thesis about God as a curse of life), personality theology (subject as the place where God can be revealed, is the personalistic argument of God's existence and “subjective theology”), science and religion (“new atheism”, scientific tech The logical argument is the existence of God).</p>
<p>"Religion, atheism, faith"</p>
<p>Paul Ricoeur</p>
<p>“The phrase“ religious meaning of atheism ”is not devoid of meaning, it says that atheism, no matter how it rejects and trashes religion, does not lose its meaning, that it clears up space for something new, that is, for faith by and large, it would be possible to call the post-religious faith, the faith of the post-religious era. "</p>
<p>“Biblical faith represents God, the God of the prophets, and the God of the Christian Trinity, as the Father; Atheism teaches us how to give up the image of the father. The image of the father, obsolete as an idol, can be restored as a symbol. This symbol will serve as the basis for the doctrine of love; in theology of love, he will become the equivalent of a consistent ascent, leading us from simple humility to poetic life. Such, as I understand it, is the religious meaning of atheism. In order for a symbol of being to be made speech, it is necessary to free yourself from an idol. ”</p>
<p>"On the absence and unknowability of God"</p>
<p>Christ Yannaras</p>
<p>Yannaras is a living classic of orthodox theology.</p>
<p>Heidegger and the Areopagite – what binds them? И тот, и другой говорят о Том, что не является бытием, но дает бытие всему сущему. В центре умозрения и того и другого — Ничто, не-сущее, на фоне которого выступает все.</p>
<p>Яннарас (вслед за Хайдеггером в его толковании Ницше) разбирает и другое Ничто, Ничто новоевропейского нигилизма — как сознательного отказа от Бога с одной стороны, и бунта против идолов, которые ставит на место Божественного Ничто новоевропейский человек, с другой.</p>
<p>Эта книга стоит в самом центре современной мысли, в разборе долгого пути, пройденного западной философией, ею же самой опознанного как тупик. Яннарас предлагает в этом тупике обратиться к православной мысли, просмотренной Западом, в особенности к Ареопагиту, который за полторы тысячи лет до Хайдеггера сформулировал онтологическую разницу.</p>
<p>«Зона opus posth, или Рождение новой реальности»</p>
<p>Владимир Мартынов</p>
<p>Одно из самых значимых высказываний о положении современного мира, нашей ситуации «пост…» и «смерти…».</p>
<p>Будучи композитором и музыковедом, Мартынов тщательно прослеживает историю музыки от средневековья до постминимализма, схватывая эту историю в нетрививальных культурологических концепциях. Музыка, однако, — только пример всей истории западного (христианского), т. е. «современного человечества».</p>
<p>Ситуация «конца», в котором оказалось современное человечество, — и это одна из самых блестящих мыслей Мартынова — не означает какого-либо пессимизма. Конец обещает начало: если история модерна — постепенной десакрализации — заканчивается «смертью Бога», и мы живем «пост» — после этой «смерти», то — как минимум — эта ситуация во-первых новая (немодерная, т. е. не несущая десакрализации), а во-вторых, она носит явно религиозный характер.</p>
<p>Сейчас, «после конца», а значит перед началом неизвестного нового, мы обретаем невиданную раннее прозрачность и невиданные раннее возможности. Это прозрачность сквозной «христианскости» нашей истории и нашего теперешнего положения и возможностей — конечно, религиозных. В терминологии Мартынова — это возможности нового сакрального пространства.</p>
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